1. (i) List the five key differences between TCP reference model and OSI reference model.
(ii) Write the similarities and differences between packet and cell switching.
(ii) Why is the data link layer in a LAN subdivided into Logical Link Control (LLC) and Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layers?
(iii) List the characteristics of broadband coaxial cable.
(iv) Differentiate between virtual circuit and datagram’s.
(v) The maximum payload of TCP segment is 62 1/2,2 1/212 1/2 bytes. Why?
(vi) What are sliding window protocols? Explain one-bit sliding window protocol with an appropriate diagram.
2. (i) Name all the basic network topologies and describe advantages of each. Draw proper diagram or each topology.
(ii) Explain the following terms:
(b) Channel capacity
(d) Quality of Service (QoS)
(e) Full-Duplex Transmission
(iii) What is the basic purpose of MAC layer protocol? Explain the function of following MAC layer protocols:
(b) Token bus
3. (i) Describe the characteristics and application or the following network devices:
(iii) Answer the following:
(a) Explain ISDN BRI Services.
(b) Differentiate between broadband and baseboard services.
(c) Describe the following three fields of TCP header :
(d) Sequence number
4. (i) What is congestion control ? How does it occur?
(ii) How does TCP handle connection establishment and crash recovery?
(ii) List and explain any five ISDN applications.
5. (i) Describe and compare the following routing algorithms:
(a) Shortest path routing
(ii) How does ATM differ from frame relay? List and briefly define the ATM service classes.
1. (a) Write any two differences between OSI and TCP/IP protocol suit. Also give reasons why OSI is not popular.
(b) Why is layering of the protocols done in TCP/IP stack?
(c) Explain any two functions of each layer of TCP/IP protocol stack.
(d) How many address bits does the latest version of IP (IPv6) have? What is the maximum number of IP addresses possible with IPv6?
(e) Identify the header of each flag and explain its meaning:
(f) How is flow control managed by Sliding Window protocol?
2. (a) What is Ethernet? How does it work? Also explain the fields of Ethernet Frame Format.
(b) What is First-Octet Rule? Give an example to explain it.
3. (a) What is the significance of hierarchical naming scheme? Differentiate among following addresses and their meaning with reference of DNS: